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eSudoe
2021
2027

Prioridad proyecto 27: 1 - Preserving Sudoe's natural capital and adapting to climate change

Collection and planting of herbaceous, wild and native seeds

The pilot actions will consist of the collection of seeds from native wild herbaceous plants (such as isolated species or mixtures) from harvesting grasslands of ecological interest previously identified by the partners. These collections may or may not be followed by an intermediate stage of multiplication, after which the seeds will be planted in objective plots of high biodiversity value, located in the vicinity (or, in any case, in the same biogeographical zone) for the purpose of ecological restoration. These pilot projects are innovative at various levels. First, we will work with species that are not, or are not widely available, at first. There is little to no reference to the methods of harvesting the mixtures (brushing, harvesting, hay transfer, manual harvesting) and to the methods used to grow these seeds, so our experiments will generate new knowledge. Within the framework of the Flore project, at least 4 different methods (hence the target value of this indicator) will be tested, but in each country several pilot ecological restoration sites will be created, allowing the diversification of climate and soil methods and contexts. This network of experimental sites will also be a support for the transfer of knowledge, both for the beneficiary partners of the project (through study trips) and for all interested economic operators, with the organisation of technical days. This demonstration value will be maintained in the long term, as pilot site managers will commit to ensuring the sustainability of the facilities, in particular by adopting the recommended sustainable management methods.

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in France

The Gaillac experimental area, located in Tarn, France, faces a number of challenges today, including: — Water scarcity and water stress, as well as the need for adaptation to climate change. — Soils impoverished in organic matter. — Control of pests and diseases in grape crops. — Reduced grape yield and decrease in wine consumption. Through the implementation and monitoring of the improvement actions in the IV, it seeks to address these challenges and at the same time, promote biodiversity, preserve cultural heritage and strengthen the resilience of the territory to climate change. The actions will be carried out in two models of vineyards, the experimental vineyard of the IFV as a “green” model and another vineyard in Gaillac as a “conventional” model with less IV. They comprise: 1. Diagnosis of aerial biodiversity in the vineyard. 2. The development of a temperature map in the experimental vineyard to identify freshness areas and their relationship with Actions IV, as well as their impact on vines. 3. Experimental test on SSEEs provided by plant cover, such as green fertilisers and temporary or permanent herbaceous covers. Aspects such as nitrogen supply, storage and release of water for vines (using biomass, nitrogen and carbon soil analysis, humidity and temperature sensors, structural stability, etc.) and associated biodiversity will be analysed. 4. In the green vineyard, a study of the hives and a pollen analysis will be carried out to determine where the bees meet in the different Actions IV of the Vinnopôle. With these actions, we hope to move towards a more sustainable and resilient management of vineyards of high ecological value, addressing current challenges and promoting the conservation of the natural and cultural environment.

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Pilot in the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal)

In the cross-border area of Arribes and Alto Douro the NBS measures to improve the IV will be implemented in vineyards of the Bodegas Pascual Fernández in Fermoselle (Zamora) and the Duorum Winery in Foz Coa and the surrounding land. These areas face challenges such as: — Fragmentation of plots, rugged orography and high cultivation costs. — Soils with little organic matter and unequal fertility. — Lack of variety in crops and increasing water stress. — Hotter and drier summers. — Risk of erosion on slopes. — Water scarcity and competition for it. — Increased erosion due to extreme weather events. — Soils with little organic matter. — Risk of fire and depopulation/desertification. In both regions, the project seeks to address agricultural and environmental challenges while promoting biodiversity and cultural heritage conservation, contributing to resilience to climate change. In the area of Mariñas -Betanzos will work on plots of the Bodega Pagos de Brigante in the area of action the challenges have to do with: — Small farms and wineries, with business at the limit of profitability. — Numerous vineyards abandoned in recent decades. — Planting tree species (eucalyptus) on abandoned vineyard farms – Difficult supply of local grapes. — Recurring crop damage caused by wildlife by abandoning farms close to the vineyards. This pilot aims to capitalise on the learnings of pilot 1 developed in France to implement NBS that increase SSEEs. In all these areas, the project seeks to address agricultural and environmental challenges while promoting biodiversity and the conservation of natural and cultural heritage, contributing to resilience to climate change and curbing depopulation.

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Pilot actions

The implementation of the 3 pilot actions contributes to the RCO84 Programme Implementation Indicator. Pilot action number 1 will consist of the creation and implementation of an energy community in the town of Bembibre, which will also study the implementation of the results of pilot action number 2 and 3 in order to replicate a sustainable mobility system based on green hydrogen as an engine and take advantage of possible surpluses for the distribution of natural gas. Action number 2 will integrate a self-consumption system and test a hydrogen bike system that will be tested in both Bembibre and Portalegre. Action 3 shall launch a demonstration laboratory in which application simulations will be carried out to adopt solutions to real cases: conversion of traffic, distribution of natural gas, modernisation of agricultural transport, etc.

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Catalogue of pilot actions for forest conservation and resilience

The objective of this catalogue is to present in a synthetic and operational way the pilot actions that are currently experiencing new solutions to conserve forest resources, preserve and strengthen the resilience of forests. Pilot actions to be carried out in the territories (15 pilot sites are already planned) will include three types of solutions: 1/Planting new species and provenances to test their resistance in forests in the long term. This should help environments better cope with different threats. 2/Adoption of specific forestry actions to promote the adaptation and resilience of forests and the maintenance of associated ecosystem services. The aim is to improve, preserve or restore forest cover, for example by enriching the masses, which favors the mixing of species. 3/Implementing actions for the conservation of the forest genetic heritage. These actions aim to respond to important local challenges. The wide variety of forest situations (main objective of the masses, composition in species, age of the masses, etc.) and of the pedocclimatic conditions found must allow a good representativeness of the forest contexts of southwest Europe. The techniques used, the resources mobilised and the results of the pilot actions will be exploited and transferred 1) within the partnership, 2) to other local, regional and national institutions and actors and 3) to other territories of the EU through the European networks of partners and partners to facilitate their ownership. This catalogue will be integrated into the metadata base (ACT2.1) and will illustrate some of the operational recommendations of the Transnational Strategy (achievement of WG1).

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Pilot actions

The GT2 contains the demonstration of 3 pilot actions (in large blocks, although they would be more considering the small variations) that implement new devices and offer new services in different areas of the SUDOE. All of them have an experimental and demonstrative character. Its monitoring (A.2.4) will make it possible to test, evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of its application. The results and practices of these pilot actions will be exploited and transferred to other institutions and territories through A.2.5. Collaboration between all partners will be indispensable, enabling pilot actions to be jointly developed and operated in different countries. All of them will be completed during the implementation of the project sufficiently in advance to allow the exploitation and evaluation of the demonstrative character during the project.

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Pilot Activities Use of Reclaimed Water in Irrigation

Implementation of two pilot actions in woody and horticultural crops, with 13 and 2 experiences respectively, in which to evaluate the effects of the use of regenerated water in irrigation, represent a basic tool for the implementation of technological solutions that facilitate the management of irrigation water (conventional and regenerated sources) through the digitisation of irrigation, providing starting information and tools for the end user, transferable to other crops and socio-economic and cultural situations. The good management of regenerated water in the crops is ensured by the implementation of a DSS of crop fertigation (GT3), based on the analyses (soil, water, plant tissues) and the information of the low-cost sensoric installed in each experience.

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Phosphate monitoring pilot jointly developed and executed in 6 SUDOE territories

Realisation 2 of Phos4Cycle seeks to establish pilot actions to improve the monitoring of phosphate flows and the forecasting of the risk of eutrophication in the river basins. It will also allow to describe the behavior of phosphorus according to different types of agricultural management in different production systems. For this purpose, a global pilot has been designed to be implemented in 6 territorial pilots (“sub”pilots) in Spain, France and Portugal. The design of the general pilot has been carried out by the BP ITAGRA, and coordinated on the one hand with the other 5 partners who together with ITAGRA will apply the design in the 6 territorial pilots, and on the other hand, with the 2 beneficiaries in charge of the analysis of soil, water and sediment samples, No 8 AQUACorp and No 9 ADERA. Each territorial pilot will be developed in a level 3 river basin, in which 3 sub-basins will be defined, one in which a traditional management will be carried out, which will serve as a reference, and another 2 with experimental management that tries to reduce phosphate pollution through responsible management. The 6 territorial pilots are shown below, including their location, responsible partner and agricultural system: Pilot 1: ES – Castilla y León – ITAGRA – REGADIO: Pilot cereal 2: ES – La Rioja – Government of La Rioja – PERMANENT CULTIVOS (VID AND OLIVO) Pilot 3: ES – Extremadura – FEDEHESA – AGROFORESTAL SYSTEM AND EXTENSIVE DEHESA Pilot 4 PT – Central/Coimbra Region – IPC (ESAC) – REGION: Horticultural Pilot 5: PT – Central Region/Aveiro – IPC (ESAC) – WINNERIA INTENSIVA DE VACUNO AND PASTO Piloto 6: FR – Nouvelle Aquitaine – ITAVI – EXTENSIVE AVICULTURE Three of the six pilots will install the AQUACorp technology for remote water analysis as part of the experimentation. This technology would reduce costs and simplify the monitoring of phosphorus associated with agro-livestock activity.

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Testing of pilot solutions for adaptation, prevention and mitigation

Under the An-Gel Sudoe project, 8 pilot areas have been selected: Lleida, Lot-et-Garonne, Bordeaux, Dordogne (x2), Rioja Alavesa, Murcia and Braganza. In each of these areas, work will be carried out in collaboration with a group of associated producers, either using farms under real production conditions or involving them in the technical follow-up of the tests. The prevention, adaptation and mitigation techniques to be tested will be (activities 2.1 and 2.2): — High precision foliar spraying (active solution). — Active ventilation (active solution). — Soil moisture management (semi-passive solution, linked to high-precision spraying, but strategically applied in a preventive and non-reactive manner). — Soil cover management — Hot hedges (passive solution). — Convective drainage of cold air — Late pruning of vines to delay the appearance of frost (solution intended to minimise the destructive effects of frost). The final solution will be the use of one of these techniques or a possible combination of several of them to adapt perfectly to the constraints of farmers in a given area. For example, a cold-breaker hedge can be used to limit the flow of cold air in the plot (passive solution), combined with controlling soil moisture by influencing the vegetation cover or by high-precision spraying (in the foliage) a few days before frost (semi-passive solution) or, if necessary, during intense frost episodes (active solution), if water resources are available. Therefore, it is considered a single solution, as it is conceived as a “toolbox” that allows combining different techniques to offer effective solutions according to the particular context of the different farms participating in the project as pilot centres.

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Early warning system

The early warning system will make it possible to anticipate spring frost situations so that active means can be prepared to complement passive and semi-passive solutions, which are of a continuous nature. The system will combine models weather forecast numbers (NPM) with high-precision soil temperature maps developed from local time series. This methodology allows to perform a downscaling process from local information to reach a very high level of accuracy (individual plot level or hyperlocal scale). The system will be highly oriented to provide an easy-to-interpret mobile version in the field, including a system dissemination module for sending alerts via email, SMS and mobile notifications. This system will be integrated as part of the ClimAlert platform, enriching its spectrum of information and attracting new users.

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